3b. Hollingbourne
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The Proprietors of the Northern Neck

Chapter 3b

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XIII. Sir John Culpeper (Thomas12 of Wigsell), 1600-1660, first baron Culpeper of Thoresway (First Lord Culpeper),  (Portrait) (Also see article from Britannica On-Line) was baptised in Salehurst, August 7, 1600, as 'Johanes Colepeper, filius Mri Thomae, armigeri'; was named by his maternal grandmother, Dame Margaret Slaney in her will (1612) as 'my godson John C. another of the sons of my dau. Anne C.,' as well as in her codicil (May, 1618) in the language already quoted; and, in the inq. p.m. of Slaney C.13 (May, 1619) appears as 'John C. his only brother and heir, and heir of the body of said Thomas by Anne his wife; and is at taking of this inq. under :21, viz: 18 years, 9 months and 9 days and no more.'

He matriculated at Oxford from Hart Hall, April 26, 1616, as 'of Sussex, aged 15' (Foster) and was admitted to the Middle Temple, February 6, 1617/8, as 'Mr. John C., second son of Thomas C. of Wigsell, Sussex, deceased (Hopwood, ii, 625). Having become, by the death of his elder brother in December, 1618, 'primi sternmatis Wigsellensis' (as he later described himself on the MI. of his first wife), he was knighted by James I at Theobald's, January 14, 1621/2 (Nichols, iii, 751).

Clarendon36 testifies that he 'never cultivated the muses.' If he ever had any intention of pursuing a career at the bar in the tradition of his uncle, John of Feckenham, he abandoned it when he became 'of Wigsell.' Being just of age as he was knighted, and having no home ties, he forthwith prepared to spend 'some years of his youth in foreign parts and especially in armies, ' and to that end liquidated his property.

He had inherited his father's share in the Virginia Company and had already taken a part in the politics of that society (in April, 1623, he allied himself with the Warwick faction, Brown, Genesis, 982), when at the court held May 7, 1623, 'Mr. Deputy propounded the passing of One Share from Sir John Culpeper to Mr. ffreake of the Middle Temple, gentleman' (Records of the London Company, L. C. ed., p. 412). In the same year, 1623 (Close Roll, 21 Jac. I, pt. 26) he sold Wigsell to Sir Thomas C.12 to be vested in his eldest son, Cheney.37 It would thus seem that Sir John must have left England in the autumn of 1623; for there is no further record of his until October, 1628, when he. contracted his first marriage. It was accordingly after five years of soldiering in the wake of Gustavus Adolphus that, as Clarendon says, 'in very good season and after a small waste of his fortune' he returned to England, 'retired from that course of life and married and betook himself to a country life.' He now established himself in Hollingbourne (he describes himself 'of Hollingbourne' in his mar. lic., 1631, and is so described again in the Commonwealth act of 1650, and, under the influence of Sir Thomas12, commenced politician. To quote Clarendon again, his school was county affairs, 'the business of the country and the concernments of it, in which he was very well versed: and being a man of sharpness of parts and volubility of language he was frequently made choice of to appear at the Council board in those matters which related to the country, in the managing whereof his abilities were well taken notice of.' The result was that he was returned (Official Returns of M. Ps. 1878) to the Short Parliament (1640) as burgess for Rye (Cinq Port). In the Long Parliament he was Knight of the shire for Kent and made his celebrated speech against monopolies (Rushworth, iv, 133).

The remainder of his career is part of the history of England. His fundamental conservatism soon drew him into opposition to the crescent 'reforming party.' In the small company of Falkland and Hyde he stood at last by the bishops and against the Grand Remonstrance; with the result that all three were invited by Charles I to join the government. On January 2, 1642, Culpeper was sworn of the Privy Council and appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer, which office he exchanged the following year for that of Master of the Rolls. Notwithstanding these dignities, 'as his courage was always unquestionable,' when war came he did service also in the field: at Edgehill (Keinton) he charged with Rupert's cavalry, acquitting 'himself like a brave man-at-arms,' and at Newbury again 'enobled his Gowne with Martiall Achievements.' For the example of these acts, as well as his service in the Council Chamber, the King raised him to the peerage in 1644;38 but in so doing 'did much dissatisfy both the court and the army.' Clarendon's own comment (Rebellion, v, 4) is that 'though he did imprudently in desiring it, did deserve it.' In 1645 he became, with Hyde, a member of the Council set up in the west of England for the Prince of Wales;39 and eventually escorted his young master from Cornwall to Scilly. Thence Culpeper left to join the Queen mother in Paris: and so began his long wanderjahr on the continent.

During the exile, the future fortunes of Culpeper's family were shaped by two lawyer-drawn papers. On September 18, 1649, he and his cousin-german Thomas Culpeper (son of John12 of Feckenham) were included in the patent which created the proprietary of the Northern Neck of Virginia;40 and in 1651 the Commonwealth by act of Parliament (Acts, 1651, c., 10) declared forfeited and ordered sold all the manors and estates of 'Sir John Culpeper, late of Hollingbourne in the County of Kent, Knight:' a description which was intended for an insult by disregarding the warborn peerage.

Culpeper survived to take part, at the age of sixty, in Charles II's entry into London. After that dramatic 'ride in triumph through Persepolis' he was destined for a large part in the restoration government (see Ranke's comment on him) ; actually he assumed his function as Master of the Rolls (swearing in, in that capacity, his old colleague Hyde as Lord Chancellor), and for some weeks sat regularly at the Council board. But in June of the restoration year he fell ill, while he 'lay' at Hartinge, co. Sussex, in the house of his friend, Sir Edward Ford, whose daughter his dead son Alexander, had married. Weary after more than ten years of exile, he planned here a settlement of his disordered estate. His English property had been sequestered and sold and he was deeply in debt. 'He used to say,' his son reported later (Gent. Mag., lxvii (1797) p. 477) 'that the usurer and he were not yet even; for he had only scratched the usurer, the usurer had stabbed him.' He was, however, comforted by a promise from the King of a grant sufficient to put his house in order; and, quite unconscious of the part that promise was to play in the history of Virginia, died on July 11, 1660 [the date is on his MI.], having made the following will.

P. C. C. Nabbs, 235.
Will dated July 3, 1660.
Codicil dated July 9, 1660.
Proved August 6, 1660.

John Lord Culpeper Baron of Thoresway. To be bur. in vault which Sir Thomas Culpeper hath builded in Hollingbourne if convenient. Whereas His Majesty in answer to my petition Of 27 June last hath engaged his Royal word for payment of 2,000 out of his first receipts, for clearing of my paternal estate and towards paying portions to my younger children. And whereas there is due to me from Mr. William Longville & Mr. Robert Hales 1,500 which is secured to my brother Ralph Freke for me by bond dat. 17 June 1660; and whereas there is due to me from Mr. Robert Peyton & Elizabeth Robinson widow 1,000 To my daur. Elizabeth in full of her portion 4,000 she to release her right in mtge made to her of manors of Morghue & Godden & of lands called Greenway Court, Kent, for payment of 1,300, & also her fourth part of manor of Kavenlite, co. Radnor, also her right in 300 debt due to her from Sir John Greenvill & such securities as sd. Sir J. Greenvill hath made to her or to Sir Edward Ford to her use, also her right to 750 which my exer or my brother Ralph Freke has already secured to her. To my daur Judith (besides the fourth part of manor of Kavenlite which I heretofore settled on her) 500 at her marriage with consent of my sister Lady Brooke, my brother Mr. William Cage, & of my exer: also 1,500 out of His Majesty's debt. To my son John (besides his fourth part in sd. manor of Kavenlite & 50 annuity settled on him out of manor of Morghue & Greenway Court) 500, also 1,000 I enjoin him to make his brother Thomas his exer in case he die under 21 or unmarried. To my son Cheney (beyond his quarter of manor of Kavenlite & of a 50 Annuity from manor of Morghue & Greenaway Court) 500 also 1,000 with same injunction as to his will. To my son Francis (beyond the 50 Annuity which I heretofore settled on him out of sd manor of Morghue & Greeneway Court) 1,000 at 21, also 1,000 more, out of King's Debt; but if he die under 21, exer discharged. To my daur Philipp in full lieu of her portion 500 also 500, both at her marriage, my exer to educate her until 18: also to her 1,000 out of King's debt. To my servant John Rowe for care of me in my sickness 120 To Sir Edward Ford in whose house I now lie, for his trouble 200 To the servants of his house 20. Rest of all debts owing to me, one particularly of 750 which Sir Thomas Culpeper owes me on mtge of parsonage of Hollingbourne to my Brother Ralph Freke in trust for me, also sums which I left at several times in hands of Mrs. Elizabeth Bridgman at Amsterdam, as appears by her letter of 10 June; & all other goods, to my exer towards disburthening & repurchasing of my estate sold during the late troubles by the then pretended authority at any time since 1643. I beg His Majesty towards redeeming of my distressed family & estate from ruin. His Majesty will take order with his Court of Exchequer that the whole debt of 12,000 may be punctually paid to my exer. My eldest son & heir Thomas C. to be exer. Witns. J. Hamilton, Edmund Gibbon, Alexander Culpeper, John Hatton, Nicholas Myram, Richard Halfhedd.

Codicil. All my real estate to my eldest son Thomas C. in fee; & whereas I am seised of divers maners & lands in co. Kent which may be Gavelkind, I leave all these to my sd. eldest son Thomas C. in fee. Witns. Tho. Pordage, A. Culpeper, Jo. Collyns, J. Reves.

Prob. per juramenturn Domini Thomae Culpeper filii... et exoris.

It does not appear from the Hollingbourne register that he was buried there, but in 1695 two of his children then surviving erected in Hollingbourne church a monument with the following MI.:

'To the lasting memory of John, Lord Culpeper, Baron of Thoresway, Master of the Rolles and Privy Counsellor to two Kings, Charles the First and Charles the Second. For equal fidelity to the King and Kingdome he was most exemplary. And in an exile of above ten years was a constant attendant and upright Minister to the Prince last mentioned. With him he returned tryumphant into England on the 29th of May 1660; but died the 11th of July next following in the 61st year of his age to the irreparable loss of his family. He commended his soul to God his faithful Creator, and ordered his body here to expect a blessed Resurrection. His Patent of Honour from King Charles the First dated the 21st of October 1644 may serve for his immortal Epitaph. Part whereof is here below faithfully copyed from the Latine original & translated into English: [the latin text, which follows, is here omitted]

'Whereas our well beloved and most faithful Counsellor John Culpeper Kt. Mr. of the Rolles of our Chancery, of the Antient and Noble family of the Culpepers in our Counties of Kent and Sussex many ages past renowned for persons of eminent ability both in War and Peace, hath given us signall testimonies of his approved Loyalty, singular Manhood, and profound judgment; who, in that never to be forgotten Battell of Keinton, where both our own and the publick safety were manifestly at stake, being then chancellor of our Exchequer, acquitted himselfe like a brave man-at-arms; who, at Newberry, and on other occasions always enobled his Gowne with Martiall Achievements; and lastly, who, in our most perilous junctures by his seasonable and solid Counsells hath been a principal support of our Crowne and Dignity, &c.'

'By his wife Judith, daughter of Sir John (sic) Culpeper of Hollingbourne Kt. he had 7 children that survived him, Thomas, later Lord Culpeper, John now Lord Culpeper, Cheney, Frances, Elizabeth, widow of James Hamilton Esq. late Groom of the Bedchamber to King Charles the Second, Judith, and Philippa. Of these John Lord Culpeper and Elizabeth Hamilton, equally zealous of expressing their Duty, have on the 10th day of June in the year 1695 erected this Monument.'

He m. 1st, 1628, Philippa (1610-1630), dau of Sir George Snelling of West Grinstead, co. Sussex.

The m. was October 29, 1628, at St. Bodolph, Bishopsgate, London (Harl. Soc. Pub., vol. 50), as 'Sir John Culpeper, Knt. & Mrs. Philip, dau. of Mr. Geo. Snelling of West Grinstead, Sussex,' and is recorded in the pedigree of Sherley of West Grinstead (of which family she was heiress), reported at the Visitation of Sussex, 1633-34 (Harl. Soc. Pub., vol. 53, pp. 4, 119; Cf. Fuller's Worthies, 1840, iii, 254).

She was buried in Hollingbourne, September 16, 1630, as 'Phillip, the wife of Sir John Culpeper, Knight;' and there was set up the following MI.:

'In memoriam Philippae filiae unicae Georgii Snellinge, Equitis Aurati, et Ceciliae, filiae et unius heredum Thomae Sherley, armigeri, uxoris Johannis Culpeper, Ordinis Equestris, Primi Sternmatis Wigsellensis, cui cum duos fiberos, Alexandrurn et Philippam, care-emptam, peperisset, animarn Creatori redidit, xvi die Septembris, Anno salutis, MDCXXX, Aetatis suat XX.'

and by her had:

i. Alexander, 1629-1649, m. 1648 Catherine (1634-1682), dau. of Sir Edward Ford of Harting, co. Sussex, o.s.p.,v.p.

The record of his baptism is lacking, but he is named in his mother's MI.; and in the will (1645) of his great uncle, Sir Alexander Culpeper12, is described as 'Alexander C. my godson, eldest son of John, Lord Culpeper, Baron of Thoresway.' He m. at Calais, September 8, 1648 (his wife being 12 years of age and he 19) and died in London, March 2, 1648/9 (G. E. C. Complete Peerage). As a consequence, he is not mentioned in his father's will (1660) ; but on January 4, 1664/5, his widow (then wife of the son and heir of the Lord Grey of Warke) made a final record by taking out admon. upon his estate, viz: 'Honourable man Alexander Culpeper of [blank] in co. Kent, but died in Drury Lane, Middlesex, Esquire, to relict Katherine wife of Ralph Grey, Esq.' (P.C.C. Admon Act Book, 1664).

ii. Philippa, 1630-ante. 1660, m. Thomas Harlakenden (1625-1689) of Harlakenden in Woodchurch, co. Kent.

Named in her mother's MI., the only other testimony for her is the record among the Harlakendens (Topographer and Genealogist, i, 228; Cf. Wykeham-Martin, Leeds Castle, p. 176) of her m. to the eldest son of Paulina, dau. of Sir Thomas Culpeper the elder (See ante.). As she is not mentioned in her father's will, she may have died during the Commonwealth.

2d, 1631, Judith (1606-post 1651), dau. of Sir Thomas Culpeper (1578-1661) of Hollingbourne, called 'the elder.'

The mar. lic. at Canterbury, January 12, 1630/1, read 'Sir John C. of Hollingbourne, Knight, wid. & Judith C. same parish, virgo., about 22 [She was baptised June 1, 1606, as noted, supra], dau. of Sir Thomas C. of said parish, Kt., who consents... at Huckinge [i.e., the church lying above the North Downs, about 3 miles from Hollingbourne].'

In May, 1651, 'Dame Judith Culpeper' appeared before the Committee at Goldsmiths Hall to attempt to secure release of some of her husband's estate (Cal. Com. Compounding, 1643-60, pt. ii, p. 1289) and a few weeks later had a pass to go to France (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1651, p. 527). There she joined her husband, and, as she is not referred to in her husband's will, must have died before the Restoration.

and by her had

iii. Elizabeth, 1632, ob. infans.

She was baptised April 3rd and buried April 9, 1632, in Hollingbourne as 'Elizabeth, dau. of Sir John Culpeper, Knight.'

iv. Thomas, 1633, ob. infans.

He was baptised December 29, 1633, and buried August 25, 1634, in Hollingbourne as 'Thomas, sonne of John Culpeper, Knight.'

v. Thomas, 1635-1689, succeeded as second Lord Culpeper, of whom hereafter.

vi. Elizabeth, 1638-1709, m. 1661 James Hamilton, Groom of the Chamber to Charles II.

She was baptised in Hollingbourne, January 4, 1637/8, as 'Elizabeth Culpep', daughter of Sir John Culpep' and Dame Judith, his wife;' and was named in her father's will as unmarried, 1660, with provision for her portion. Her m., 1661, is noted in Collins Peerage, ed. Brydges, 1812, ii, 527, to record the fact that her son succeeded as sixth earl of Abercorn. In 1695 she recorded herself on her father's MI. as 'Elizabeth, widow of James Hamilton, late Groom of the Bed Chamber to King Charles the Second,' and was buried in Hollingbourne, February 6, 1709/10, as 'the Honourable Elizabeth Hamilton.' She had acquired in 1698 the manor of Chilston, co. Kent, and it was there that she died, aet. 72; and was succeeded by her younger son, William, who m. a dau. of Sir Thomas C.13 of Hollingbourne, and d. 1737, having served the office of Sheriff of Kent (Hasted, ii, 435).

vii. Judith, 1638-1691, unmarried (She did marry.  See note below).

She was baptised in Hollingbourne, September 28, 1638, as Judeth, the dau. of Sir John Culpep' and Dame Judith, his Lady,' is named in her father's will (1660) and, finally, was buried in Hollingbourne, November 21, 1691, as 'the Honourable Judith Culpeper.'

She remained in England during her father's long exile (Cf. the reference to her in June, 1654, in Cal. Clarendon State Papers, ii, 377), and employed her time in embroidering the elaborate decorations which are still in use in Hollingbourne church. Hasted (ii, 471) describes her work as 'a. most superb altar cloth, a pulpit cloth and cushion of purple velvet, ornamented with different figures of fruits, of pomegranet and grapes, wrought in gold, the needle work of the daughters of Sir John Colepeper... who employed themselves for almost the space of 12 years in the working of them during their father's absence abroad with Charles II.'

Alone of her family, she kept on friendly terms with her brother, the second Lord Culpeper (Cf. her letters in Notes and Queries, 2d Series, ii, 130, 177) ; and it was to her that he addressed his letter from Boston in 1680 (Va. Hist. Reg., iii, 189). Her name appears in the State Papers several times after 1675 in the family controversy over the 'Six Clerks' place,' of which hereafter.

Correction and amplification by Warren Culpepper: At age 53, two years prior to her death, the spinster Judith married her second cousin, Alexander Culpeper, Surveyor General of Virginia, who was 58 and a bachelor. The marriage was on 19 Dec 1689 at St. Mary Magdalene Church, Old Fish Street, London.  The couple lived in Leed's Castle with Judith's sister-in-law, Margaret, Lady Culpeper. Judith died two years later and was buried on 21 Nov 1691. On 29 Nov 1691, Alexander wrote his last will and testament, and while he had no reason at that point to mention his recently deceased wife, he did leave his interest in the Northern Neck to his deceased wife's sister-in-law, Margaret who had invited them to live with her at Leeds Castle.

viii. John, 1641-1719, third Lord Culpeper, o.s.p.

He was baptised in Hollingbourne, March 4, 1640/1, as 'John, sonne of Sir John Culpeper, Knt. and Dame Judith his wife; had a pass to go to France with his brothers in 1651 (Cal. State Papers, 1651, P. 529) ; and was named in his father's will (1660) as 'my son John,' with injunction to 'make his brother Thomas his executor in case he die under 21 or unmarried.' After the Restoration he had a commission as lieutenant in the navy (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1673, pp. 202, 435) and during the Dutch wars was, as his MI. recorded 'in four sea fights.' He subsequently engaged in a bitter controversy with the second Lord Culpeper over some patronage which Charles II had intended for the benefit of the first Lord Culpeper's younger children (See infra) ; in consequence of which he was himself appointed in 1681 to the profitable post of one of the Six Clerks in Chancery (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1681).

In 1689 he succeeded as third Lord Culpeper and precipitated the attacks on the estate of his elder brother which are rehearsed infra but, being unsuccessful in recovering more than a small annuity, had difficulty in maintaining his dignity as a peer. He left no will, nor was there any administration.

He m. his cousin Frances (1664-1740) dau. of Sir Thomas Culpeper the younger, of Hollingbourne; died s.p.; and was buried in Hollingbourne, July 22, 1719, as 'the Rt. Honourable John, Lord Colepeper.' There his widow set up the following MI.:

'In hopes of a blessed Resurrection to Eternal life, near this place lyeth the body of the Right Honourable John, Lord Colepeper, Baron of Thoresway, in the County of Lincoln. He was the best of Friends and the best of Husbands. He was in four Sea-Fights, wherein he behaved with great Courage & Bravery, having his Cabin shot to pieces and his Commanding Officer kil'd. He attended the House of Lords 18 years constantly, with a very small fortune, where he always behaved with steadiness for the good of his King & Country. He resigned his soul to God the 8th of July, 1719, and ended his days with Resignation and Piety. He married Francis, eldest daughter of Sir Thomas Colepepper, of this place, by whom he had no issue...

'The Right Honourable Francis, Lady CoIepeper erected this Monument to show the great Respect she had to the Memory of her Husband, John, Lord Colepeper.'

ix. Cheney, 1642-1725, fourth and last Lord Culpeper, o.s.p.

He was baptised in Hollingbourne, September 6, 1642, as 'Cheney, sonne of the right honourable Sir John Culpeper, Chancellor of the Exchequer, and Dame Judith his wife;' and went to France with his brothers in 1651. In the roaring days of the Restoration he killed an officer of the guards with a blunderbuss and was pardoned only because he was brother to a peer. In 1667 he was called to the Bar (Inderwick, Inner Temple Records, iii, 49).

The only other records of him are that, surviving his brother John, he was buried in Hollingbourne, June 19, 1725, as 'Cheney, Lord Culpeper,' and was included in John's MI. by the following notice (omitted supra) :

'He left one Brother, Cheney, who succeeded him in Honour, a Gentleman of great worth and fine Accomplishments, who survived his brother till the year 1725, and then died in his retirement at Hoffron St. John, where he had lived many years; by which this branch of that most antiente and Knightly family became extinct.'

x. Philippa, 1650-1719, unmarried.

She was baptised in Hollingbourne, February 14, 1649/50, as 'Dame Phillip Culpeper, daughter of the Rt. Hon'ble John Culpeper, Baron of Thoresway, and Dame Judith his wife;' and is named in her father's will with provision for her education until 18. In 1675 she was brought into the family controversy over the 'six clerk place' (Cal. State Papers, Dom., 1675-76, p. 294), but there is no further record of her until her death. She was buried in Kirby Cane Church, co. Norfolk, and her will was proved as P.C.C. Shaller, 132.

xi. Francis, 1652-1663, o.s.p.

He is the only one of his generation of whom there is no record in Hollingbourne. Evidently born abroad after his mother had rejoined her husband for the exile, he made his first appearance in his father's will as 'my son Francis,' with recitation of a settlement which was to be ineffective 'if he die under 21.' He was then entered at Westminster School; where the name F. Culpeper' is inscribed on one of the monumental lists of Captains of the School between 1653 and 1682 (Welch, Queen's Scholars of Westminster, 1852; p. 532).

He was buried in the cloisters of Westminster Abbey, November 1. 1663, as Francis Culpeper, one of the King's scholars' (Chester, Westminster Burials, Harl. Soc. Pub., x, p. 159, where Col. Chester conjectures that he was a son of the second Lord Culpeper).

His name was not included in the list of children surviving their father on the first Lord Culpeper's MI.; but as that record was not made until 1695, it is apparent that Francis' survivorship had then been forgotten.

(Continued in Chapter 3c)

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36 The first Lord Culpeper is one of Clarendon's celebrated 'characters,' in Life (1927 ed.), i, 106 ff. See also Rebellion, passim, and Sir Philip Warwick, Memoirs, p. 195. His many letters to Hyde are in Cal. Clarendon State Papers, vol. i, passim. The best modern biography is that by a specialist on the 'Troubles,' Prof. C. H. Firth in D. N. B., re-issue, iv, 749. (Return)

37 After having been a Culpeper possession for 300 years, Wigsell passed, in the ruin of Sir Cheney Culpeper's estate, to one who had been 'table boy under the Colepepers whom at length he bought out.' Ultimately, it came to a branch of the Harcourt family and is now the residence of Lord Edward Cecil of the Egyptian service. The house has been several times rebuilt and so now bears little relation to its appearance when the Culpepers possessed it (See Hodson, Salehurst). (Return)

38 As Baron Colepeper of Thoresway, co. Linc. See the quotation from the patent in his MI., quoted post. While there were Culpepers in Lincolnshire in the fifteenth century, it does not appear that the Wigsell Culpepers had any inheritance from them (Lincolnshire Notes & Queries, x, 37). Thoresway was a royal manor in the wolds of Lincolnshire, attached to the Duchy of Lancaster (Allen, Lincolnshire, 1834, ii, 207) and was granted to Lord Culpeper to support the dignity of his peerage. See the references to it in Cal. Committee for Compounding, v, 3277: and in the proceedings to settle the estate of the second Lord Culpeper, quoted post. (Return)

39 There is a highly coloured and entertaining glimpse of Culpeper at this time (when he was 46 years of age) in the following letter of Sir Richard Grenville to Lord Ormonde, which f ell into the hands of the Parliament and was published in London as a pamphlet (The King's Pamphlets, E, 333, British Museum) to show the disorganization of the royalists, viz:

'Right Honourable... I am now at Nantes in France, and about to depart hence towards Italy for the war against the Turk... Hopton flying into Cornwall with his men dispersed several wayes... The News thereof made the Prince command the Earl of Branford and Lord Culpeper, with all speed, to meet the Lord Hopton and Lord Capel at Wadebridge, nigh the heart of Cornwal, to advise on affairs for the safety of the West (I think to shut the stable door when the horse was gone) ; but Culpeper in his haste and way, finding some Gentlemen merry and drinking in Penrin town, he would needs make one amongst them, and so did, till night came; and then Bacchus prevailing, Culpeper's eloquence displeased Mr. Slingsby, by which grew a quarrel betwixt them two onely, and at bare fistycuffs they were a good space, till the company parted them; and then Culpeper and Slingsby, in the moonshine, got them into the garden, and like two Cocks at the end of a Battel, not able to stand well, offer'd and peck'd at one another, till the weight of Slingsbie's head drew him to the ground; which advantage Culpeper took hold of, and by it got Slingsbie's sword; and then like St. George, made more such triumphant flourishes over Slingsby, then a German Fencer at the beginning of a Prize; but by good fortune, the rest of the associates came in, and easily persuaded the Duellists to end the quarrel by the cup again; which service continued till the next day, with divers and several bouts at fistycuffs. The next day (about ten of the clock) they having red Herrings and mustard for Breakfast, Culpeper again gave Slingsby distaste, whereon he threw a dish of mustard at Culpeper's face (taking his Nose for a red Herring) ; which procur'd another grievous incounter, in such sort, that the market people (to part the fray) thronged the house full, whereby that also was taken up, and the saucy Lord fain to get his mustard-Face, Eyes, Beard, Band and Coat wash'd; and about four of the next evening, Culpeper rid on in his hasty journey to overtake the Lord of Branford, who rid chasing & staying for him above twenty four hours in his way. Such a Privie-Councellor will soon finish his Masters businesse one way; preferring his own delights before the important businesse that concerns the safety of the Prince &c. This story is indeed very true in every particular, and so I leave it with you and depart.

Your Lordships humble Servant
R. Grenvile.
Nantes in France
9 April, 1646.' (Return)

40 The original Northern Neck charter of 1649 is now in the British Museum as Additional Charter, 13585. The grantees therein named were 'our Right trusty and well beloved Ralph, Lord Hopton, Baron of Stratton; Henry, Lord Jermyn, Baron of St. Edmund's Bury; John, Lord Culpeper, Baron of Thoresway; Sir John Barkeley; Sir William Morton; Sir Dudley Wyatt; and Thomas Culpeper, Esqr.' There were several changes in the personnel of the proprietors before the second Lord Culpeper bought them all out, as recited post. The second charter (Patent Roll 21, Car. 11, pt. 4, No. 6, Cf. Am. & W. L, 669-74, p. 22) recited that on May 8, 1669, 'said Lords Hopton and Culpeper, Sir Dudley Wyatt and Thomas Culpeper are dead, said Lord Hopton [having] conveyed all his estate and interest in the premises to John Trethewy [whereby] all said premises [are] vested in said earl of St. Albans [the Jermyn of the charter of 1649] John Lord Berkeley, Sir William Morton and John Trethewy.' St. Albans and Berkeley were both parties to the conveyance to Culpeper in 1681, but Sir William Morton's interest was then represented by his son, Sir James (Cf. D. N. B. re-issue, xiii, 1065), and that of John Trethewy by his younger brother and heir, Anthony (Cf. Visitation of Cornwall, p. 498). (Return)

Last Revised: 02 Jan 2015 


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