The Proprietors of the Northern Neck
XIII. Sir John Culpeper (Thomas12
of Wigsell), 1600-1660, first baron Culpeper of Thoresway (First Lord Culpeper),
(Also see article from Britannica On-Line) was baptised
in Salehurst, August 7, 1600, as 'Johanes Colepeper, filius Mri Thomae, armigeri'; was
named by his maternal grandmother, Dame Margaret Slaney in her will (1612) as 'my godson
John C. another of the sons of my dau. Anne C.,' as well as in her codicil (May, 1618) in
the language already quoted; and, in the inq. p.m. of Slaney C.13 (May, 1619)
appears as 'John C. his only brother and heir, and heir of the body of said Thomas by Anne
his wife; and is at taking of this inq. under :21, viz: 18 years, 9 months and 9 days and
He matriculated at Oxford from Hart Hall, April 26, 1616, as 'of Sussex, aged 15'
(Foster) and was admitted to the Middle Temple, February 6, 1617/8, as 'Mr. John C.,
second son of Thomas C. of Wigsell, Sussex, deceased (Hopwood, ii, 625). Having become, by
the death of his elder brother in December, 1618, 'primi sternmatis Wigsellensis' (as he
later described himself on the MI. of his first wife), he was knighted by James I at
Theobald's, January 14, 1621/2 (Nichols, iii, 751).
Clarendon36 testifies that
he 'never cultivated the muses.' If he ever had any intention of pursuing a career at the
bar in the tradition of his uncle, John of Feckenham, he abandoned it when he became 'of
Wigsell.' Being just of age as he was knighted, and having no home ties, he forthwith
prepared to spend 'some years of his youth in foreign parts and especially in armies, '
and to that end liquidated his property.
He had inherited his father's share in the Virginia Company and had already taken a
part in the politics of that society (in April, 1623, he allied himself with the Warwick
faction, Brown, Genesis, 982), when at the court held May 7, 1623, 'Mr. Deputy
propounded the passing of One Share from Sir John Culpeper to Mr. ffreake of the Middle
Temple, gentleman' (Records of the London Company, L. C. ed., p. 412). In the same
year, 1623 (Close Roll, 21 Jac. I, pt. 26) he sold Wigsell to Sir Thomas C.12
to be vested in his eldest son, Cheney.37 It would thus seem that Sir John must have left England in the autumn of
1623; for there is no further record of his until October, 1628, when he. contracted his
first marriage. It was accordingly after five years of soldiering in the wake of Gustavus
Adolphus that, as Clarendon says, 'in very good season and after a small waste of his
fortune' he returned to England, 'retired from that course of life and married and betook
himself to a country life.' He now established himself in Hollingbourne (he describes
himself 'of Hollingbourne' in his mar. lic., 1631, and is so described again in the
Commonwealth act of 1650, and, under the influence of Sir Thomas12, commenced
politician. To quote Clarendon again, his school was county affairs, 'the business of the
country and the concernments of it, in which he was very well versed: and being a man of
sharpness of parts and volubility of language he was frequently made choice of to appear
at the Council board in those matters which related to the country, in the managing
whereof his abilities were well taken notice of.' The result was that he was returned (Official
Returns of M. Ps. 1878) to the Short Parliament (1640) as burgess for Rye (Cinq Port).
In the Long Parliament he was Knight of the shire for Kent and made his celebrated speech
against monopolies (Rushworth, iv, 133).
The remainder of his career is part of the history of England. His fundamental
conservatism soon drew him into opposition to the crescent 'reforming party.' In the small
company of Falkland and Hyde he stood at last by the bishops and against the Grand
Remonstrance; with the result that all three were invited by Charles I to join the
government. On January 2, 1642, Culpeper was sworn of the Privy Council and appointed
Chancellor of the Exchequer, which office he exchanged the following year for that of
Master of the Rolls. Notwithstanding these dignities, 'as his courage was always
unquestionable,' when war came he did service also in the field: at Edgehill (Keinton) he
charged with Rupert's cavalry, acquitting 'himself like a brave man-at-arms,' and at
Newbury again 'enobled his Gowne with Martiall Achievements.' For the example of these
acts, as well as his service in the Council Chamber, the King raised him to the peerage in
1644;38 but in so doing 'did
much dissatisfy both the court and the army.' Clarendon's own comment (Rebellion, v,
4) is that 'though he did imprudently in desiring it, did deserve it.' In 1645 he became,
with Hyde, a member of the Council set up in the west of England for the Prince of Wales;39 and eventually escorted his
young master from Cornwall to Scilly. Thence Culpeper left to join the Queen mother in
Paris: and so began his long wanderjahr on the continent.
During the exile, the future fortunes of Culpeper's family were shaped by two
lawyer-drawn papers. On September 18, 1649, he and his cousin-german Thomas Culpeper (son
of John12 of Feckenham) were included in the patent which created the
proprietary of the Northern Neck of Virginia;40 and in 1651 the Commonwealth by act of Parliament (Acts, 1651, c., 10)
declared forfeited and ordered sold all the manors and estates of 'Sir John Culpeper, late
of Hollingbourne in the County of Kent, Knight:' a description which was intended for an
insult by disregarding the warborn peerage.
Culpeper survived to take part, at the age of sixty, in Charles II's entry into London.
After that dramatic 'ride in triumph through Persepolis' he was destined for a large part
in the restoration government (see Ranke's comment on him) ; actually he assumed his
function as Master of the Rolls (swearing in, in that capacity, his old colleague Hyde as
Lord Chancellor), and for some weeks sat regularly at the Council board. But in June of
the restoration year he fell ill, while he 'lay' at Hartinge, co. Sussex, in the house of
his friend, Sir Edward Ford, whose daughter his dead son Alexander, had married. Weary
after more than ten years of exile, he planned here a settlement of his disordered estate.
His English property had been sequestered and sold and he was deeply in debt. 'He used to
say,' his son reported later (Gent. Mag., lxvii (1797) p. 477) 'that the
usurer and he were not yet even; for he had only scratched the usurer, the usurer had
stabbed him.' He was, however, comforted by a promise from the King of a grant sufficient
to put his house in order; and, quite unconscious of the part that promise was to play in
the history of Virginia, died on July 11, 1660 [the date is on his MI.], having made the
P. C. C. Nabbs, 235.
Will dated July 3, 1660.
Codicil dated July 9, 1660.
Proved August 6, 1660.
John Lord Culpeper Baron of Thoresway. To be bur.
in vault which Sir Thomas Culpeper hath builded in Hollingbourne if convenient. Whereas
His Majesty in answer to my petition Of 27 June last hath engaged his Royal word for
payment of £2,000 out of his first receipts, for clearing of my paternal estate and
towards paying portions to my younger children. And whereas there is due to me from Mr.
William Longville & Mr. Robert Hales £1,500 which is secured to my brother Ralph
Freke for me by bond dat. 17 June 1660; and whereas there is due to me from Mr. Robert
Peyton & Elizabeth Robinson widow £1,000 To my daur. Elizabeth in full of her portion
£4,000 she to release her right in mtge made to her of manors of Morghue & Godden
& of lands called Greenway Court, Kent, for payment of £1,300, & also her fourth
part of manor of Kavenlite, co. Radnor, also her right in £300 debt due to her from Sir
John Greenvill & such securities as sd. Sir J. Greenvill hath made to her or to Sir
Edward Ford to her use, also her right to £750 which my exer or my brother Ralph Freke
has already secured to her. To my daur Judith (besides the fourth part of manor of
Kavenlite which I heretofore settled on her) £500 at her marriage with consent of my
sister Lady Brooke, my brother Mr. William Cage, & of my exer: also £1,500 out of His
Majesty's debt. To my son John (besides his fourth part in sd. manor of Kavenlite &
£50 annuity settled on him out of manor of Morghue & Greenway Court) £500, also
£1,000 I enjoin him to make his brother Thomas his exer in case he die under 21 or
unmarried. To my son Cheney (beyond his quarter of manor of Kavenlite & of a £50
Annuity from manor of Morghue & Greenaway Court) £500 also £1,000 with same
injunction as to his will. To my son Francis (beyond the £50 Annuity which I heretofore
settled on him out of sd manor of Morghue & Greeneway Court) £1,000 at 21, also
£1,000 more, out of King's Debt; but if he die under 21, exer discharged. To my daur
Philipp in full lieu of her portion £500 also £500, both at her marriage, my exer to
educate her until 18: also to her £1,000 out of King's debt. To my servant John Rowe for
care of me in my sickness £120 To Sir Edward Ford in whose house I now lie, for his
trouble £200 To the servants of his house £20. Rest of all debts owing to me, one
particularly of £750 which Sir Thomas Culpeper owes me on mtge of parsonage of
Hollingbourne to my Brother Ralph Freke in trust for me, also sums which I left at several
times in hands of Mrs. Elizabeth Bridgman at Amsterdam, as appears by her letter of 10
June; & all other goods, to my exer towards disburthening & repurchasing of my
estate sold during the late troubles by the then pretended authority at any time since
1643. I beg His Majesty towards redeeming of my distressed family & estate from ruin.
His Majesty will take order with his Court of Exchequer that the whole debt of £12,000
may be punctually paid to my exer. My eldest son & heir Thomas C. to be exer. Witns.
J. Hamilton, Edmund Gibbon, Alexander Culpeper, John Hatton, Nicholas Myram, Richard
Codicil. All my real estate to my eldest son Thomas C. in
fee; & whereas I am seised of divers maners & lands in co. Kent which may be
Gavelkind, I leave all these to my sd. eldest son Thomas C. in fee. Witns. Tho.
Pordage, A. Culpeper, Jo. Collyns, J. Reves.
Prob. per juramenturn Domini Thomae Culpeper
filii... et exoris.
It does not appear from the Hollingbourne register that he was buried there, but in
1695 two of his children then surviving erected in Hollingbourne church a monument with
the following MI.:
'To the lasting memory of John, Lord Culpeper, Baron of Thoresway, Master of the
Rolles and Privy Counsellor to two Kings, Charles the First and Charles the Second. For
equal fidelity to the King and Kingdome he was most exemplary. And in an exile of above
ten years was a constant attendant and upright Minister to the Prince last mentioned. With
him he returned tryumphant into England on the 29th of May 1660; but died the 11th of July
next following in the 61st year of his age to the irreparable loss of his family. He
commended his soul to God his faithful Creator, and ordered his body here to expect a
blessed Resurrection. His Patent of Honour from King Charles the First dated the 21st
of October 1644 may serve for his immortal Epitaph. Part whereof is here below faithfully
copyed from the Latine original & translated into English: [the latin text, which
follows, is here omitted]
'Whereas our well beloved and most faithful Counsellor John Culpeper Kt. Mr. of the
Rolles of our Chancery, of the Antient and Noble family of the Culpepers in our Counties
of Kent and Sussex many ages past renowned for persons of eminent ability both in War and
Peace, hath given us signall testimonies of his approved Loyalty, singular Manhood, and
profound judgment; who, in that never to be forgotten Battell of Keinton, where both our
own and the publick safety were manifestly at stake, being then chancellor of our
Exchequer, acquitted himselfe like a brave man-at-arms; who, at Newberry, and on other
occasions always enobled his Gowne with Martiall Achievements; and lastly, who, in our
most perilous junctures by his seasonable and solid Counsells hath been a principal
support of our Crowne and Dignity, &c.'
'By his wife Judith, daughter of Sir John (sic) Culpeper of Hollingbourne Kt. he
had 7 children that survived him, Thomas, later Lord Culpeper, John now Lord Culpeper,
Cheney, Frances, Elizabeth, widow of James Hamilton Esq. late Groom of the Bedchamber to
King Charles the Second, Judith, and Philippa. Of these John Lord Culpeper and Elizabeth
Hamilton, equally zealous of expressing their Duty, have on the 10th day of June in the
year 1695 erected this Monument.'
He m. 1st, 1628, Philippa (1610-1630), dau of Sir George Snelling of West Grinstead,
The m. was October 29, 1628, at St. Bodolph, Bishopsgate, London (Harl. Soc. Pub.,
vol. 50), as 'Sir John Culpeper, Knt. & Mrs. Philip, dau. of Mr. Geo. Snelling of West
Grinstead, Sussex,' and is recorded in the pedigree of Sherley of West Grinstead (of which
family she was heiress), reported at the Visitation of Sussex, 1633-34 (Harl. Soc. Pub.,
vol. 53, pp. 4, 119; Cf. Fuller's Worthies, 1840, iii, 254).
She was buried in Hollingbourne, September 16, 1630, as 'Phillip, the wife of Sir John
Culpeper, Knight;' and there was set up the following MI.:
'In memoriam Philippae filiae unicae Georgii Snellinge, Equitis Aurati, et
Ceciliae, filiae et unius heredum Thomae Sherley, armigeri, uxoris Johannis Culpeper,
Ordinis Equestris, Primi Sternmatis Wigsellensis, cui cum duos fiberos, Alexandrurn et
Philippam, care-emptam, peperisset, animarn Creatori redidit, xvi die Septembris, Anno
salutis, MDCXXX, Aetatis suat XX.'
and by her had:
i. Alexander, 1629-1649, m. 1648 Catherine (1634-1682), dau. of Sir
Edward Ford of Harting, co. Sussex, o.s.p.,v.p.
The record of his baptism is lacking, but he is named in his mother's
MI.; and in the will (1645) of his great uncle, Sir Alexander Culpeper12, is
described as 'Alexander C. my godson, eldest son of John, Lord Culpeper, Baron of
Thoresway.' He m. at Calais, September 8, 1648 (his wife being 12 years of age and he 19)
and died in London, March 2, 1648/9 (G. E. C. Complete Peerage). As a consequence,
he is not mentioned in his father's will (1660) ; but on January 4, 1664/5, his widow
(then wife of the son and heir of the Lord Grey of Warke) made a final record by taking
out admon. upon his estate, viz: 'Honourable man Alexander Culpeper of [blank] in co.
Kent, but died in Drury Lane, Middlesex, Esquire, to relict Katherine wife of Ralph Grey,
Esq.' (P.C.C. Admon Act Book, 1664).
ii. Philippa, 1630-ante. 1660, m. Thomas Harlakenden (1625-1689) of
Harlakenden in Woodchurch, co. Kent.
Named in her mother's MI., the only other testimony for her is the
record among the Harlakendens (Topographer and Genealogist, i, 228; Cf.
Wykeham-Martin, Leeds Castle, p. 176) of her m. to the eldest son of Paulina, dau.
of Sir Thomas Culpeper the elder (See ante.). As she is not mentioned in her
father's will, she may have died during the Commonwealth.
2d, 1631, Judith (1606-post 1651), dau. of Sir Thomas Culpeper (1578-1661) of
Hollingbourne, called 'the elder.'
The mar. lic. at Canterbury, January 12, 1630/1, read 'Sir John C. of Hollingbourne,
Knight, wid. & Judith C. same parish, virgo., about 22 [She was baptised June 1, 1606,
as noted, supra], dau. of Sir Thomas C. of said parish, Kt., who consents... at
Huckinge [i.e., the church lying above the North Downs, about 3 miles from
In May, 1651, 'Dame Judith Culpeper' appeared before the Committee at Goldsmiths Hall
to attempt to secure release of some of her husband's estate (Cal. Com. Compounding,
1643-60, pt. ii, p. 1289) and a few weeks later had a pass to go to France (Cal. State
Papers, Dom. 1651, p. 527). There she joined her husband, and, as she is not referred
to in her husband's will, must have died before the Restoration.
and by her had
iii. Elizabeth, 1632, ob. infans.
She was baptised April 3rd and buried April 9, 1632, in Hollingbourne as 'Elizabeth,
dau. of Sir John Culpeper, Knight.'
iv. Thomas, 1633, ob. infans.
He was baptised December 29, 1633, and buried August 25, 1634, in Hollingbourne as
'Thomas, sonne of John Culpeper, Knight.'
v. Thomas, 1635-1689, succeeded as second Lord Culpeper, of whom hereafter.
vi. Elizabeth, 1638-1709, m. 1661 James Hamilton, Groom of the Chamber to Charles II.
She was baptised in Hollingbourne, January 4, 1637/8, as 'Elizabeth Culpep', daughter
of Sir John Culpep' and Dame Judith, his wife;' and was named in her father's will as
unmarried, 1660, with provision for her portion. Her m., 1661, is noted in Collins
Peerage, ed. Brydges, 1812, ii, 527, to record the fact that her son succeeded as
sixth earl of Abercorn. In 1695 she recorded herself on her father's MI. as 'Elizabeth,
widow of James Hamilton, late Groom of the Bed Chamber to King Charles the Second,' and
was buried in Hollingbourne, February 6, 1709/10, as 'the Honourable Elizabeth Hamilton.'
She had acquired in 1698 the manor of Chilston, co. Kent, and it was there that she died,
aet. 72; and was succeeded by her younger son, William, who m. a dau. of Sir Thomas C.13
of Hollingbourne, and d. 1737, having served the office of Sheriff of Kent (Hasted, ii,
vii. Judith, 1638-1691, unmarried (She
did marry. See note below).
She was baptised in Hollingbourne, September 28, 1638, as Judeth, the dau. of Sir John
Culpep' and Dame Judith, his Lady,' is named in her father's will (1660) and, finally, was
buried in Hollingbourne, November 21, 1691, as 'the Honourable Judith
She remained in England during her father's long exile (Cf. the reference to her
in June, 1654, in Cal. Clarendon State Papers, ii, 377), and employed her time in
embroidering the elaborate decorations which are still in use in Hollingbourne church.
Hasted (ii, 471) describes her work as 'a. most superb altar cloth, a pulpit cloth and
cushion of purple velvet, ornamented with different figures of fruits, of pomegranet and
grapes, wrought in gold, the needle work of the daughters of Sir John Colepeper... who
employed themselves for almost the space of 12 years in the working of them during their
father's absence abroad with Charles II.'
Alone of her family, she kept on friendly terms with her brother, the second Lord
Culpeper (Cf. her letters in Notes and Queries, 2d Series, ii, 130, 177) ;
and it was to her that he addressed his letter from Boston in 1680 (Va. Hist. Reg.,
iii, 189). Her name appears in the State Papers several times after 1675 in the family
controversy over the 'Six Clerks' place,' of which hereafter.
and amplification by Warren Culpepper:
At age 53, two years prior to her death, the spinster
Judith married her second cousin, Alexander
Culpeper, Surveyor General of Virginia, who was 58 and a bachelor. The
marriage was on 19 Dec 1689 at St. Mary Magdalene Church, Old Fish Street,
London. The couple lived in Leed's Castle with Judith's sister-in-law,
Margaret, Lady Culpeper. Judith died two years later and was buried on 21
Nov 1691. On 29 Nov 1691, Alexander wrote his last will and testament, and
while he had no reason at that point to mention his recently deceased wife,
he did leave his interest in the Northern Neck to his deceased wife's
sister-in-law, Margaret who had invited them to live with her at Leeds
viii. John, 1641-1719, third Lord Culpeper, o.s.p.
He was baptised in Hollingbourne, March 4, 1640/1, as 'John, sonne of Sir John
Culpeper, Knt. and Dame Judith his wife; had a pass to go to France with his brothers in
1651 (Cal. State Papers, 1651, P. 529) ; and was named in his father's will (1660) as 'my
son John,' with injunction to 'make his brother Thomas his executor in case he die under
21 or unmarried.' After the Restoration he had a commission as lieutenant in the navy (Cal.
State Papers, Dom. 1673, pp. 202, 435) and during the Dutch wars was, as his MI.
recorded 'in four sea fights.' He subsequently engaged in a bitter controversy with the
second Lord Culpeper over some patronage which Charles II had intended for the benefit of
the first Lord Culpeper's younger children (See infra) ; in consequence of which he
was himself appointed in 1681 to the profitable post of one of the Six Clerks in Chancery
(Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1681).
In 1689 he succeeded as third Lord Culpeper and precipitated the attacks on the estate
of his elder brother which are rehearsed infra but, being unsuccessful in recovering more
than a small annuity, had difficulty in maintaining his dignity as a peer. He left no
will, nor was there any administration.
He m. his cousin Frances (1664-1740) dau. of Sir Thomas Culpeper the younger, of
Hollingbourne; died s.p.; and was buried in Hollingbourne, July 22, 1719, as 'the
Rt. Honourable John, Lord Colepeper.' There his widow set up the following MI.:
'In hopes of a blessed Resurrection to Eternal life, near this place lyeth the body
of the Right Honourable John, Lord Colepeper, Baron of Thoresway, in the County of
Lincoln. He was the best of Friends and the best of Husbands. He was in four Sea-Fights,
wherein he behaved with great Courage & Bravery, having his Cabin shot to pieces and
his Commanding Officer kil'd. He attended the House of Lords 18 years constantly, with a
very small fortune, where he always behaved with steadiness for the good of his King &
Country. He resigned his soul to God the 8th of July, 1719, and ended his days with
Resignation and Piety. He married Francis, eldest daughter of Sir Thomas Colepepper, of
this place, by whom he had no issue...
'The Right Honourable Francis, Lady CoIepeper erected this Monument to show the great
Respect she had to the Memory of her Husband, John, Lord Colepeper.'
ix. Cheney, 1642-1725, fourth and last Lord Culpeper, o.s.p.
He was baptised in Hollingbourne, September 6, 1642, as 'Cheney, sonne of the right
honourable Sir John Culpeper, Chancellor of the Exchequer, and Dame Judith his wife;' and
went to France with his brothers in 1651. In the roaring days of the Restoration he killed
an officer of the guards with a blunderbuss and was pardoned only because he was brother
to a peer. In 1667 he was called to the Bar (Inderwick, Inner Temple Records,
The only other records of him are that, surviving his brother John, he was buried in
Hollingbourne, June 19, 1725, as 'Cheney, Lord Culpeper,' and was included in John's MI.
by the following notice (omitted supra) :
'He left one Brother, Cheney, who succeeded him in Honour, a Gentleman of great worth
and fine Accomplishments, who survived his brother till the year 1725, and then died in
his retirement at Hoffron St. John, where he had lived many years; by which this branch of
that most antiente and Knightly family became extinct.'
x. Philippa, 1650-1719, unmarried.
She was baptised in Hollingbourne, February 14, 1649/50, as 'Dame Phillip Culpeper,
daughter of the Rt. Hon'ble John Culpeper, Baron of Thoresway, and Dame Judith his wife;'
and is named in her father's will with provision for her education until 18. In 1675 she
was brought into the family controversy over the 'six clerk place' (Cal. State Papers, Dom.,
1675-76, p. 294), but there is no further record of her until her death. She was buried in
Kirby Cane Church, co. Norfolk, and her will was proved as P.C.C. Shaller, 132.
xi. Francis, 1652-1663, o.s.p.
He is the only one of his generation of whom there is no record in Hollingbourne.
Evidently born abroad after his mother had rejoined her husband for the exile, he made his
first appearance in his father's will as 'my son Francis,' with recitation of a settlement
which was to be ineffective 'if he die under 21.' He was then entered at Westminster
School; where the name F. Culpeper' is inscribed on one of the monumental lists of
Captains of the School between 1653 and 1682 (Welch, Queen's Scholars of Westminster,
1852; p. 532).
He was buried in the cloisters of Westminster Abbey, November 1. 1663, as Francis
Culpeper, one of the King's scholars' (Chester, Westminster Burials, Harl. Soc. Pub.,
x, p. 159, where Col. Chester conjectures that he was a son of the second Lord
His name was not included in the list of children surviving their father on the first
Lord Culpeper's MI.; but as that record was not made until 1695, it is apparent that
Francis' survivorship had then been forgotten.
(Continued in Chapter 3c)
36 The first Lord Culpeper is one of
Clarendon's celebrated 'characters,' in Life (1927 ed.), i, 106 ff. See also Rebellion,
passim, and Sir Philip Warwick, Memoirs, p. 195. His many letters to Hyde are
in Cal. Clarendon State Papers, vol. i, passim. The best modern biography is that
by a specialist on the 'Troubles,' Prof. C. H. Firth in D. N. B., re-issue, iv, 749. (Return)
37 After having been a Culpeper possession for 300 years,
Wigsell passed, in the ruin of Sir Cheney Culpeper's estate, to one who had been 'table
boy under the Colepepers whom at length he bought out.' Ultimately, it came to a branch of
the Harcourt family and is now the residence of Lord Edward Cecil of the Egyptian service.
The house has been several times rebuilt and so now bears little relation to its
appearance when the Culpepers possessed it (See Hodson, Salehurst). (Return)
38 As Baron Colepeper of Thoresway, co. Linc. See the
quotation from the patent in his MI., quoted post. While there were Culpepers in
Lincolnshire in the fifteenth century, it does not appear that the Wigsell Culpepers had
any inheritance from them (Lincolnshire Notes & Queries, x, 37). Thoresway
was a royal manor in the wolds of Lincolnshire, attached to the Duchy of Lancaster (Allen,
Lincolnshire, 1834, ii, 207) and was granted to Lord Culpeper to support the
dignity of his peerage. See the references to it in Cal. Committee for Compounding,
v, 3277: and in the proceedings to settle the estate of the second Lord Culpeper, quoted post.
39 There is a highly coloured and entertaining
glimpse of Culpeper at this time (when he was 46 years of age) in the following
letter of Sir Richard Grenville to Lord Ormonde, which f ell into the hands of the
Parliament and was published in London as a pamphlet (The King's Pamphlets, E, 333,
British Museum) to show the disorganization of the royalists, viz:
'Right Honourable... I am now at Nantes in France, and about to depart hence towards
Italy for the war against the Turk... Hopton flying into Cornwall with his men dispersed
several wayes... The News thereof made the Prince command the Earl of Branford and Lord
Culpeper, with all speed, to meet the Lord Hopton and Lord Capel at Wadebridge, nigh the
heart of Cornwal, to advise on affairs for the safety of the West (I think to shut the
stable door when the horse was gone) ; but Culpeper in his haste and way, finding some
Gentlemen merry and drinking in Penrin town, he would needs make one amongst them, and so
did, till night came; and then Bacchus prevailing, Culpeper's eloquence displeased Mr. Slingsby, by which grew a quarrel betwixt them two onely, and at bare fistycuffs they were
a good space, till the company parted them; and then Culpeper and Slingsby, in the
moonshine, got them into the garden, and like two Cocks at the end of a Battel, not able
to stand well, offer'd and peck'd at one another, till the weight of Slingsbie's head drew
him to the ground; which advantage Culpeper took hold of, and by it got Slingsbie's
sword; and then like St. George, made more such triumphant flourishes over Slingsby, then
a German Fencer at the beginning of a Prize; but by good fortune, the rest of the
associates came in, and easily persuaded the Duellists to end the quarrel by the cup
again; which service continued till the next day, with divers and several bouts at
fistycuffs. The next day (about ten of the clock) they having red Herrings and mustard for
Breakfast, Culpeper again gave Slingsby distaste, whereon he threw a dish of mustard at
Culpeper's face (taking his Nose for a red Herring) ; which procur'd another grievous
incounter, in such sort, that the market people (to part the fray) thronged the house
full, whereby that also was taken up, and the saucy Lord fain to get his mustard-Face,
Eyes, Beard, Band and Coat wash'd; and about four of the next evening, Culpeper rid on in
his hasty journey to overtake the Lord of Branford, who rid chasing & staying for him
above twenty four hours in his way. Such a Privie-Councellor will soon finish his Masters
businesse one way; preferring his own delights before the important businesse that
concerns the safety of the Prince &c. This story is indeed very true in every
particular, and so I leave it with you and depart.
Your Lordships humble Servant
Nantes in France
9 April, 1646.' (Return)
40 The original Northern Neck charter of 1649 is now in the
British Museum as Additional Charter, 13585. The grantees therein named were 'our
Right trusty and well beloved Ralph, Lord Hopton, Baron of Stratton; Henry, Lord Jermyn,
Baron of St. Edmund's Bury; John, Lord Culpeper, Baron of Thoresway; Sir John Barkeley;
Sir William Morton; Sir Dudley Wyatt; and Thomas Culpeper, Esqr.' There were several
changes in the personnel of the proprietors before the second Lord Culpeper bought them
all out, as recited post. The second charter (Patent Roll 21, Car. 11, pt. 4, No. 6, Cf.
Am. & W. L, 669-74, p. 22) recited that on May 8, 1669, 'said Lords Hopton
and Culpeper, Sir Dudley Wyatt and Thomas Culpeper are dead, said Lord Hopton [having]
conveyed all his estate and interest in the premises to John Trethewy [whereby] all said
premises [are] vested in said earl of St. Albans [the Jermyn of the charter of 1649] John
Lord Berkeley, Sir William Morton and John Trethewy.' St. Albans and Berkeley were both
parties to the conveyance to Culpeper in 1681, but Sir William Morton's interest was then
represented by his son, Sir James (Cf. D. N. B. re-issue, xiii, 1065), and that of
John Trethewy by his younger brother and heir, Anthony (Cf. Visitation of Cornwall,
p. 498). (Return)
02 Jan 2015